in alta Montagna
Group Parachutists Trentini
returns to the Paratroopers Trentini
MANUAL OF TRAINING PROPEDEUTICO ┴ THE THROWING
ACCORDING TO THE METHOD "FV"
It departs before: Normal
AUXILIARY AND THE PRINCIPAL
of the throwing equipment:
description, characteristics and performances, sequence of
1. 1 - SYSTEM KNAPSACKS IMBRAGATURA
1. 2 - SlSTEMA Di Connection Among L'
1. 3 - ADDITIONAL DEVICE OF OPENING AUTOMATICACA CA
1. 4 - THE PARACHUTES
1. 5 - THE COMMANDS
1. 6 - THE VEILINGS
1. 7 - THE SLIDER
1. 8 - ROPE OF TIE
1. 9 - SEQUENCE OF AUTOMATIC OPENING 'FV" OF THE PARACHUTE
and indossaggio of the equipment
2. 1 - PREPARATION DELL' EQUIPMENT
2. 2 - INDOSSAGGI0 DELL'
2. 3 - VESTIARlO
setup and behavior on board of the aircraft.
3. 1 - PRE - lMBARCO
3. 2 - lMBARCO is S1STEMAZIONE ┴ I
3. 3 - COMPORTAMENT0 ┴
of exit dal1'aeromobirle for the throwing.
that act on the body to the exit and in fall, concept of equilibrium
and stability of the body in fall.
5.1 - ALL' Gone out
5.2 - in Fall
5.3 - equilibrium Of the Body In
Acquisition of stability and behavior actually to the opening
6. 1 - AQUISIZIONE DI
6. 2 - BEHAVIOR UNTIL ┴. THE
Technique for the opening of the principal parachute.
It verifies post-opening of the state of the parachute.
Manoeuvres to prevent collisions with other parachutists.
Evaluation of: position in comparison to the area of landing;
direction and. intensity of the wind.
Formality of use of the parachute for landing in pre-arranged area,
in operation of the wind and of the obstacles to the ground.
11 .1 - manoeuvres to Be effected Before Landing In
11 .2 - encircled Of landing
11 .3 - manoeuvres to Be effected In Presence Of
Obstacles ┴. the Ground
Respect of the point of landing.
Behavior of the wind in proximity of obstacles. (turbulences)
Manoeuvres to prevent landings on you hinder.
Manoeuvre of the veiling in preparation of the landing.
Formality and behavior in the phase of landing.
16 .1 - braked Correct In Landing
16 .2 -
braked TOO MUCH TALL
16 .3 - braked Too much Low
Behavior to the ground in an airport area.
17 .1 - behavior ┴. the Ground After A Correct
17 .2 - behavior ┴. the Ground In An Airport
Second departs: Procedures of
18. Procedures in situations of
18.1 - damage ┴. the aircraft.
18.2 - Accidental opening Of the Parachute ┴.
Bordo Of the aircraft.
18.3 - Accidental opening Of the Parachute
During The Phase Of Exit.
18.4 - procedures In Case Of I don't Detach any
Rope Of Tie it is Consequent Deduction Of the Parachutist Suspended ┴.
18.5 - procedures In Case Of Malfunctions Light
┴. the Parachute, In Phase Of Opening.
18.6 - procedures Of use Of the Auxiliary
18.7 - malfunctions Serious ┴. the Parachute,
In Phase Of Opening.
18.8 - malfunctions ┴. Bassa Speed' Of Fall
That you/they Ask for The Procedure "he/she Knows" (I Unhook some
principal veiling and Opening of the assistant).
18.9 - malfunctions To High Speed' Of Fall That
you/they Ask for The Procedure "┴. the" (immediate Opening of the
18.10 - collisions.
18.11 - landings On you Hinder
18.12 TRASCINAMENTOs ┴ the Ground.
19. Behavior in descent with the auxiliary
20. General norms of prevention of the
21. Conditions of health dissuaded for the
execution of the throwing.
22. General norms of behavior in case of
damage of the aircraft in the phase of take-off or immediately
23. Notions of normative connected
aeronautics the paracadutismo.
PROGRAM OF TRAINING FOR THE PARACADUTISMO
TRAINING PROPEDEUTICO ┴ THE THROWING ACCORDING
TO THE METHOD " FV"
It departs Before: Normal
1.Presentation of the throwing
equipment: description, carnatteristiche and performances, sequence of
L' throwing equipment to be used is built from:
- a system
- a principal parachute;
- an auxiliary
1 .1 - system SACCHE/IMBRAGATURA
The system sacche/imbragatura is
of the type "CAMPUS 2."
The "CAMPUS 2" it is composed from an
imbragatura to which a separated knapsack has fixed in two compartments,
one above the other.
In the inferior compartment the principal
parachute is lodged, in that superior, the parachute ausiliario.Il
auxiliary parachute is integrally united to the imbragatura, while the
principal is to it united through a system of hookup "┴. 3 rings." This
system of hookup allows, if necessario,il separation of the principal
parachute from the imbragatura. The rings are visible in the tall part of
the two anterior ribbons of the imbragatura. On the right anterior ribbon
of the imbragatura a pad of cloth is lodged that trazionato, duly,
produces the aforesaid separation.
On the left anterior ribbon the
metallic handle of opening of the auxiliary parachute is lodged.
worn, 1'imbragatura stick to the body with the closing and regoazione,
through simple traction, of the two ribbons cosciali and of the ribbon
1 .2 - system Of Connection Among L' Opening Of the assistant And The
The visible device in the tall anterior part of the
imbragatura, is a system of connection of the principal parachute with the
opening of the auxiliary parachute. And' a system that the opening of the
assistant makes automatic after the possible necessary I unhook some
pincipale. The system can manually be disarmed.
1.3 - Additional device Of Automatic Opening.
And' a device that
automatically operates the opening of the assistant to the safety quota to
which tarato.E comes' installed under the metallic handle of opening of
the assistant. It has an interrupter for the activation and the
1.4 - the Parachutes.
The system of the principal parachute is
constituted by a pilots extractor (small parachute with a powerful person
rubber band) co11egato through a ribbon to the veiling.
pilots extractor and the veiling, along the connective ribbon, there is a
scabbard inside which it comes well lodged the veiling after having
correctly been refolded.
To the veiling all the ropes have fixed that constitute the bundle
funicular. The bundle funicular is separated in four groups of ropes
that are united to as many resistant ribbons, said "suspenderses"
(anterior right and left, back right and left) which turns to them
they are united to the imbragatura through the system "┴. 3 rings".
The system of the auxiliary parachute is similar to that of the
principal parachute. With exclusion of the fact that the suspenderses
of the assistant are solidali with the imbragatura.
1 .5 - the Commands.
On the anterior fašade of each of the two
back suspenderses of each of the two parachutes, they are lodged some
manigliettes in cloth ("commands"). These are connected with twines,
to the respective back parts of her velatura.Trazionando the
manglietta of right the tacking effects to the right him, trazionando
the maniglietta of left the tacking effects to the left him.
Trazionando both the commands it him the speed of advancement. The
diminution of speed of advancement and the acceleration of the tacking
depend on the ampleness of extension of the commands.
commands come, during the refolding, duly jammed so that to have him,
in the moment of the opening, the advancement of the veiling to a
speed equal to halves the proper maximum speed. This, both to avoid
too much a violent shock of opening both to allow a more orderly
unfolding of the veiling. The forgetfulness of the block of the
commands produces dangerously defective openings.
1.6 - the Veilings.
The veilings are both, principal and
assistant, to profile to haul of nylon ripstop to low porosity.
Their inside structure is to blank cells (9 principal; 7 cells
Rettangoare has cried and they measures of
superficie,circa 26 mqs. the principal one and 22 mqs. the assistant.
They are both direzionabili with the special commands.
action of these commands, connected with the back part (edge of exit)
of the veiling, they produce to this such deformations to allow moves
of direction and variations of speed of avanzamenio.
their performances are the followings:
Proper speed CVp) of
advancement = 8/9 meters to the second;
Speed of Descent (Vd) max
= 4 m/ses.
1.7 - the SLIDER.
The slider is a nylon handkerchief with 4
holes to the edges (distant among them around as the distance between
the suspenderses of right and quele of left), through each of which it
passes one of the four group of ropes of the fascio.Ha the function of
deceleration of the opening of the veiling. Without it, the opening
would be too much violent to be able to bear her/it without damages.
1.8 - rope Of Tie.
The rope of tie (FV) it is a ribbon in nylon
wide 2,5 centimeters and long around 3 meters. A head is to form of
buttonhole and the other head a moschettone you/he/she has fixed. The
buttonhole of the F.V. you/he/she is connected at the base of the
pilots extractor, through a twine to set tear (350 Ns). The
moschettone is fixed to a special hookup (static cable) on the
1 .9 - sequence Of Automatic " Opening FV" Of the
Hardly the parachutist leaves the airplane to perform the
throwing, the rope of tie going to tension, you/he/she opens the knapsack,
you/he/she extracts the pilots, he sends in tension the scabbard where the
veiling is lodged, the whole bundle funicular develops him and, to this
point the set twine breaks him. The wind, produced by the fall, it puts in
pressure the cells and it begins the unfolding of the veiling, delayed by
the slider that, from the tall position, next to the veiling, it goes down
behind the suspenderses.
2. Preparation and
indossaggio of the equipment.
2.1 - preparation DELL' Equipment.
wearing the knapsack of the parachutes in order, the checks are obligatory
(from who delivers him/it and of whom has to use him/it) of the efficenza
systems of closing and opening of the knapsack of the principal
and the assistant;
system of I unhook some principal veiling;
safety system that connects the principal to the opening of the
it systematizes automatic of opening of the assistant.
For a comfortable indossaggio, to loosen the closings of the ribbons
cosciali and to open the closing of the ribbon pettorale. To insert in the
ribbon pettorale the optic altimeter. To systematize the rigid helmet
ready for the indossaggio.
2.2 - INDOSSAGGIO DELL' Equipment.
To take the knapsack with the
parachutes from the tall part of the principal ribbon of the imbragatura
(never from the suspenderses or from the handles), to insert the legs in
the single coscialis, to insert him/it on the shoulders, to close the
ribbon pettorale, to tighten the closings of the ribbons cosciali, to
tighten the ribbon pettorale, systematizing the altimeter so that is
visible and you don't jeopardize the possible driving of the handles of
emergenza.Se 1'imbragatura it was too much long or too much short for the
height of whom the ilndossa, togl-lersi the equipment, to regulate him/it
and to wear again it.
To activate the additional Device of automatic
2.3 - clothing.
For i1 clothing there are no particular
Special overall or rest overall and gymnastic shoes are
And' made obligation that the attire covers the limbs and
that the footwears are closed without susceptible parts of impigliamento.
3. Embarkation, setup and
behavior on board of the aircraft.
3.1 - PRE-embarkation.
The operation that immediately
precedes the phase of embarkation is the control pre-embarkation dell,
equipment. This edited by control the instructor, or of who function
replaces him/it (Manager of Throwing, "DL"), it is obligatory and it has
to be claimed from who has to suffer him/it.
3.2 - IMBARCD And SISTEMAZIDNE ┴. Bordo.
The run of approach to the
aircraft never has to pass in front of this. If it needs to revolve him/it
to pass behind the tail.
Don't draw near to the airplane if not in
presence of the DL.
The DL owes the ndicare the place assigned to
every parachutist and has to hook the ropes of tie to the special cable
statico.Pretendere the control of the operation of hookup of his/her own
rope of tie. To climb and to take a seat according to the indications of
3.3 - behavior ┴. Bordo
During the flight for the
attainment of the point of throwing, to stay firm to the really place and
to follow to the evventualis dispositions dispositions of the DL.
4. Formality of exit da1l' aircraft for the
The good position to the exit dall' airplane favors (if even it
determines not) the position that the body will assume during the first
seconds of free fall. This means that the preparation to the exit is very
The positioning to the door diversifies him according to
the conformation and position of the door in the various aircrafts. It
will be therefore the instructor's care to point out of time in time, for
every type of aircraft, the precise positioning before abandoning the
airplane, with the purpose to be able to easily assume and in the briefest
possible time the correct position of free fall.
Two fundamental rules
and always valid to make sure himself/herself/themselves a correct I
detach from the airplane it is that to get ready
himself/herself/themselves to the uscia preparing the body on the same
axle of flight of the airplane and in such a position that allows to
always see the DL. To maintain, during the whole phase of exit, the look
to.) DL and a necessary condition to make easy and corrected the position
to I detach him/it.
Around one minute before reaching the point of
throwing, when the DL from the disposition to the pilot to reduce the
speed of the airplane (usually the used word is: "motor", says to tall
voice) it is owed us to correctly systematize to the door and to effect
the exit according to the received indications dall' Instructor.
5. Strengths that act on the body to the exit
and in free fall, concept of equilibrium and stability of the body in
5.1 - ALL' Gone out.
In exit, the feeling that tries him, is not to
fall in the void but to be supported on a pillow of air. That is thanks to
the relative wind. That wind that spontaneously produces him with the
motion of his/her own body. Nell 'instant of the I detach dall' airplane,
the speed of advancement in comparison to the ground is equal to the speed
of the airplane. In the following instants he will reduce as thin to
5.2 - in Fall.
In the following moment to the exit
the strength of terrestrial gravity acts as on all the heaviest bodies of
the air: the bodies fall I pour earth. They fall with acceleration
(defined. in the case of the terrestrial gravity, with the letter "g")
constant (=9.8m/sec.q) for all the bodies, up to 12/15 seconds after the
exit; moment in which the speed, thanks to the resistance of the air, it
stabilizes him on a value (variable according to the position and the
surface of the body, according to the density of the air, according to the
mass of the parachutist, etc.) from 180 to 250 km/hs. Before the 12/15
seconds expire the speed of advancement that the body had to the exit
practically reduced to zero.
5.3 - Stable equilibrium Of the Body In Free Fall.
All the strengths of a system can be represented by an only equivalent
strength. The point of application of the resultant one (defined weight of
the body) of the strengths d' action is the C.G. (Center of Gravity),
while the corresponding resultant puntodella of the strengths of reaction
is the C.P. (Center of Pressure).
While the position of the C.G. on
the plan, various in operation of the form and mass of the body, the
position of the C.P. various mainly in operation of the surface of the
body to the relative wind. speed of movement, etc.
To have him
equilibrium, the two resultant they have to be equivalent and of
If we consider that in every human body in fallen the
C.G. you/he/she is approximately positioned to the height of the stomach,
to have him "stable Equilibrium" (and that is a stable fall) it needs that
the C.P. both above the C.G.
To get best ci˛,la-position is the Basic
Body: in attitude to arc.
Head: flexed back
Hands: in line.
Thighs: wide apart.
There is to add that the look has to
continue to be turned to the thin DL to the opening of the parachute. And
this' for three important reasons:
he/she forces the head in a correct
the visual contact with always the DL is had for possible
he easily checks, without other moves of the head, the
phase of opening of the parachute.
A correct stable fall favors the
correct opening of the knapsack and correct and orderly unfolding of the
parachute, further to warn, in smaller way, the shock that is suffered to
the moment of the opening of the veiling. And' this the position that the
body has to assume later immediately I detach him/it dall' aircraft, up to
the opening of the parachute.
And' this position the first important
objective that has to reach a student that holds to his/her own safety and
desires to correctly begin a good progression.
6. Acquisition of stability and
behavior actually to the opening.
6.1 - acquisition Of Established.'
To acquire the stability in exit
is not some enough to know the theory. With the purpose to mechanize at
the most the correct movements, that don't jeopardize the stability of the
position, numerous tests are necessary and earth simulations in presence
of the instructor that corrects possible errors:
- tests in airplane,
of the positioning to the door;
- tests in airplane, of the exit and
immediate acquisition of the position;
- tests of the positions of
the body, the head, the look, the braccias, the hands, the
thighs, the legs, the feet.
6.2 - behavior Until ALL' Opening.
We have seen in precedence the behavior to hold in airplane in slope,
we now analyze the behavior to hold from the moment of the attainment of
the quota of throwing up to the opening. When the DL will have'
established to have reached the precise moment to begin the operations for
it will orally warn the pilot that he is about to
effect the throwing;
it will warn the student to settle
himself/herself/themselves to the door and this will involve as in the
controýlerÓ the positioning and it will warn the
student that can launch him.
The student, always looking at the
DL, it will effect his/her exit as in the earth tests, assuming her/it
correct position, maintaining the visual contact with the DL and
articulating, to tall voice, three seconds.
The scanning of the time in moments of tension happens too much in
fast way. And' well therefore to get used to earth to articulate:
"ONE. TWO. Three", in the precise time of three seconds, with the aid
of a chronometer. To repeat numerous times the tests of a regular
scanning, to tall voice.
Three seconds it is the presumable time
to have him the opening of the parachute. In case of drawbacks,
departed this time, it needs to begin the procedures of emergency
brought more before (from $18.4 to $18.9).
After the correct
opening of the parachute, to grasp the commands and trazionarli in low
contemporarily, to free them from the brakes.
7. Technique for l
'opening of the principal parachute.
To acquire the technique for the opening, 1'esercizio
propedeuticos it is her/it "False Handle" (F.M.), so-called because
you/he/she is performed with a handle that is not connected to the opening
of the knapsack and therefore without any function. This exercise, the
first one in stable free fall, must be performs when he/she anchors the
opening it automatically happens from the traction of the rope of tie. L'
exercise simply consists in the gesture of traction of the handle that
owes venir performed in the following way:
After the exit, to the scanning of "Two", to grasp
the handle with 1a hand dest ra and contemporarily left aloft above
the forehead, to extract the familia bringing the braccias in the
position of stable fall. The exercise has to begin and to end
And' absolutely necessary to
try numerous times, to earth, with the installed handle both the
technique and the correct lilt of the exercise.
8. Verica post-opening
of the state of the parachute.
After the opening of the parachute inanzitutto is
necessary to verify the state of the veiling, of the slider, of the
ropes and of the suspenderses intervening if unsuitable unsuitable
necessario.Eventuali and relative procedures of emergency are
described subsequently (from $18.5 to $18.9).
Verified the good
state of the parachute, to grasp the commands and trazionarli in low
freeing so the brakes.
9. Manoeuvres to prevent collisions
with other parachutists.
After the verification of the state of the sail. it
is necessary to be ready to immediately avoid a possible collision
with other near parachutists. To do this.' if the brakes of the
commands are not freed, still it is necessary to immediately take in
hand the suspender back right and trazionarla to fund. If the brakes
of the commands have been freed, already trazionare immediately, to
fund. the command destro.Tutto this to effect to the right a sudden
Even if he is not in rout of collision, to watch out, not
only in phase of opening but during the whole descent to open
parachute, not to enter the wake left by other underlying
parachutists. The flight would become, for the whole time when he is
in wake, uncontrollable. Always respect the fundamental one regulate
that from the right of precedence to the parachutists; without any
10. Evaluation of: position I
respect a1l'area of landing; direction and intensity of the wind.
With the commands in hand to individualize the
position of the known things: footstep of the airport, shed, roads,
wind sleeve. To esteem the proper vertical looking among the feet so
also appraising the direction of the move.
Your point should be
"awry" of the zone of landing, and that is from the part from where it
eventually originates the wind that blows in direction of the zone of
The observation of the wind sleeve can help to verify if
the direction and the intensity of the wind are the same of those that
existed to earth. before the slope. and according to which the
instructor has given indications for the manoeuvres to
11. Formality of
use of the parachute for landing in pre-arranged area, of the wind and
of the obstacles to the ground.
11.1 - manoeuvres to Be effected Before Landing In
And' important to first of all remember to
never abandon the taking on the commands, fi no end
all of the manoeuvre of landing!
himself/herself/themselves toward the zone of landing without
overcoming her/it. After the approximate evaluation of the
expectation point of landing, in consideration of the direction and
speed of the wind and the present obstacles to the ground, to
overcome along the run to perform the following exercises,:
to effect a least traction of the two commands in equal measure. and
from this position to lower completely the command of right, after
having so effected a turn of 360 degrees, to bring the right command
to the height of the other and to repeat the exercise with the left
b) to release the commands, trazionarli both up to the
possible lowest point, to maintain them so until the annulment of
the speed it is not warned, of advancement (stalemate), and then to
softly release them up to the height of the shoulders.
the whole position intermediary, to try to establish qual'Ŕ the
exact point whether to bring the commands affinche,la speed of
advancement both, the maximum metÓ,della.
Anybody test must have
effected to inferior quota to the 400 meters. And' profit here to
remember that the speed and the direction of the moves in comparison
to the ground are the result of the components of the Vp and the
Speed of the wind (Vw).
To check the vertical point on the
ground and the quota on the altimeter after every
11.2 - encircled Of landing.
To 300 meters quota you have to
reach the vertical one of a point on the ground (Stings Window),
predetermined to earth together with the instructor, from which to
begin the circuit of landing. The procedures and the parameters
related to the standard circuit of landing, dettagliatamentes will
come illustrated by the instructor.
The contact with the ground
has to Always happen against wind even if its intensity is least. And'
evident in fact that landing for wind him lands to the speed' sum of
the Vp with the speed of the wind (Vw). Landing instead against wind
him will land to a speed difference of the two speeds' and that is
very more slowly. To make an example of a very frequent condition,
imagines that there am a wind of 3 m/ses. The move in comparison to
the terrestrial sara':
for wind, CVp + Vw = 8 m/ses + 3 m/ses = 11
against wind, CVp - Vw = 8 m/ses - 3 m/ses = 5 m/ses).
And' evident that a landing for wind is extremely dangerous.
11.3 - manoeuvres to Be effected In Presence Of
Obstacles ┴. the Ground.
The theoretical behavior of the parachute
is valid until there are no obstacles in the anticipated zone for the
If I am there or they introduces obstacles, it needs to
observe a simple rule:
- if the obstacle on the trajectory of
approach in the zone is far, it is tried to remain in the zone where
he is, reducing the speed of advancement.
- if the I hinder it is
nearby, it is tried to overcome him/it.
To avoid an obstacle, also
a tacking of degrees (10/30) you/he/she could be enough without
jeopardizing the safety.
12. Respect of the
point of landing.
To esteem well the point of landing, he checks
a1ternativamente the vertical point and the path, imaginarily drawn on
the ground, that he is crossing for the landing. This way making the
error of evaluation of the point of landing is least. We remember then
that: more it draws near us to the more ground it is easy to make the
necessary evaluations. With the help of the Instructor and the
experience that it is acquired with the throwing the respect it will
be precise more and more.
13. Behavior of the
wind in proximity of obstacles (turbulences).
The turbulence is also known under the name of
"whirlwinds or rotors"; they exist of it of all the greatness, from
less than a meter to many kilometers of diameter.
are due to:
to) the impact of the wind against solid objects as
you plant with trees, hills, built, etc.. Once overcome the I hinder,
the flow of the wind breaks him and the air directs him in all the
directions creating note turbulences.
b) static instability of the
air, due to thermal effect.
c) difference of speed among
provocative two masses of air to theirs counted, a series of turbinii.
Even if all these three conditions he can more dangerously
introduce always, decidedly the more frequently dangerous it is her/it
The intensity of the turbulence in this case depends from:
the speed' of the wind
the density of the air
the form and
the greatness of the obstacles to the flow of the air.
wind for instance, exceeds the the speed of 5/7 meters to the second,
it needs to move himself/herself/themselves of 400 meters from great
buildings not to find turbulent zones anymore.
In the zones
turbulent, the veiling is in nanny of the sudden moves of direction
and intensity of the wind. ln these cases the best stability of the
veiling is had trazionando the commands to 30/50% of brake.
14. Manoeuvres to prevent landings
on you hinder.
If, in the final phase of the landing, in perfect
position against wind, it had to present himself/herself/themselves an
obstacle before you/he/she can be avoided him/it acting on the command
from the free part from obstacles, effecting so a light tacking of
some degree. 10/30 degrees are often enough. A disassamento, from the
against wind, of these few degrees, don't jeopardize the safety of the
landing. You will land with a light scarrocciamento from the part from
which veers. And' however better to land in these conditions that
impattare against the I hinder.
And' important however to remember
that in the moment of execution of next tackings to the 90 degrees and
over, the speed of fall starts to increase enormously and therefore,
if you effect next to the ground, the impact with the ground under
These conditions is violent and puts in serious danger the safety of
whom has effected such an incorrect manoeuvre.
15. Manoeuvre of the
veiling in preparation of the landing.
To the quota of 50 meters it will be owed us to find
with the well grasped commands and trazionati to 20/30%, in right
flight, in perfect position opposite wind with the look on the ground
to the presumable point of landing. Don't perform any manoeuvre if not
tightly necessary for safety matters. To focus
himself/herself/themselves to get ready himself/herself/themselves to
the contact with the ground.
16. Formality and behavior in the
phase of landing.
16.1 - braked Correct In Landing.
To the quota of 20 meters,
grasped well always the commands, to release them completely and to
start, immediately later, one definite progressive sunk of the
commands. This manoeuvre is that, that allows a sweet landing and it
asks only for a brief run of two or three footsteps.
Main point is
not to bring the sail in stalemate (least speed of advancement but
high speed of descent!).
In case of landing in a non known zone,
so that to avoid errors of evaluation of quota, and therefore of
manoeuvres of braked, to maintain from the height of 10 meters, the
commands trazionati to 50% landing so with a run some heavy, but
16.2 - braked Too much Tall.
If brakes her/it
starts too aloft, to slow down the movement of the braked one. If he
doesn't succeed in appraising the error and at the end of brakes
her/it it is found there tall, to remain with the firm commands in
that position and to get ready himself/herself/themselves to a landing
a harder po.
16.3 - braked Too much Low.
Realizing himself/herself/itself to
have begun brakes too much her in low, it needs to close the legs, to
unite the feet and to get ready himself/herself/themselves to a
landing a harder po. If the error is not warned, in the moment to
instinctively touch earth him effetuerÓ a fast run, for some meter, up
to the disposal of the whole horizontal push.
In the first three
throwing, during the whole phase of landing there will be 1'assistenza
of the instructor or of parachutist with license from him designate.
These it will give, by radio or with megaphone or with pre-arranged
gestures, indications on the precise moment of beginning of the braked
one, on the speed of execution of the braked one and on possible
corrections of incorrect manoeuvres.
to the ground airport in'area.
17.1 behavior ┴. the Ground After A Normal CORETTO
Atterraggio Immediately after the landing. raccoglere the skein
veiling with the wide braccias. starting from the bundle funicular,
then the veiling, then the pilots. To reach the zone of refolding. To
place the parachute starting from the pilots and subsequently,
withdrawing, the veiling and the bundle funicular. To unhook the hook
pettorale, to get unthreaded himself/herself/themselves him
the-mbragatura and after having riagganciato the pettorale. to put
back her/it to contact of the ground. To present
himself/herself/themselves to the Instructor with the book of the
throwing for the recording of the data and the technical evaluations
of the Instructor.
17.2 behavior ┴. the Ground In An Airport Area.
In the case the
landings happen in an airport, besides rilspettare the airport rules
it is necessary to remain always in the spaces destined to the school.
to absolutely avoid to draw near to other aircrafts, to never cross
the footstep or the link not to stop on the square of flight.
accidentally the landing had happened in footstep, to immediately free
To reach the zone of refolding, if the landing has
happened from the other side of the footstep, not to cross her/it but
to trick passing her/it over the nearest heading.
end part before