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Group Parachutists Trentini

It returns to the Paratroopers Trentini

MANUAL OF TRAINING PROPEDEUTICO ┴ THE THROWING

ACCORDING TO THE METHOD "FV"

INDEX

It departs before: Normal procedures

Presentation of the throwing equipment:

description, characteristics and performances, sequence of opening

1. 1 - SYSTEM KNAPSACKS IMBRAGATURA

1. 2 - SlSTEMA Di Connection Among L' OPENING DELL' AUXILIARY AND THE PRINCIPAL

1. 3 - ADDITIONAL DEVICE OF OPENING AUTOMATICACA CA

1. 4 - THE PARACHUTES

1. 5 - THE COMMANDS

1. 6 - THE VEILINGS

1. 7 - THE SLIDER

1. 8 - ROPE OF TIE

1. 9 - SEQUENCE OF AUTOMATIC OPENING 'FV" OF THE PARACHUTE

Preparation and indossaggio of the equipment

2. 1 - PREPARATION DELL' EQUIPMENT

2. 2 - INDOSSAGGI0 DELL' EQUIPAGG1AMENTO

2. 3 - VESTIARlO

Embarkation, setup and behavior on board of the aircraft.

3. 1 - PRE - lMBARCO

3. 2 - lMBARCO is S1STEMAZIONE ┴ I Hem

3. 3 - COMPORTAMENT0 ┴ HEMS

Formality of exit dal1'aeromobirle for the throwing.

Strengths that act on the body to the exit and in fall, concept of equilibrium and stability of the body in fall.

5.1 - ALL' Gone out

5.2 - in Fall

5.3 - equilibrium Of the Body In Free Fall

6. Acquisition of stability and behavior actually to the opening

6. 1 - AQUISIZIONE DI ESTABLISHED'

6. 2 - BEHAVIOR UNTIL ┴. THE OPENING

7. Technique for the opening of the principal parachute.

8. It verifies post-opening of the state of the parachute.

9. Manoeuvres to prevent collisions with other parachutists.

10. Evaluation of: position in comparison to the area of landing; direction and. intensity of the wind.

11. Formality of use of the parachute for landing in pre-arranged area, in operation of the wind and of the obstacles to the ground.

11 .1 - manoeuvres to Be effected Before Landing In Pre-arranged Area

11 .2 - encircled Of landing

11 .3 - manoeuvres to Be effected In Presence Of Obstacles ┴. the Ground

12. Respect of the point of landing.

13. Behavior of the wind in proximity of obstacles. (turbulences)

14. Manoeuvres to prevent landings on you hinder.

15. Manoeuvre of the veiling in preparation of the landing.

16. Formality and behavior in the phase of landing.

16 .1 - braked Correct In Landing

16 .2 - braked TOO MUCH TALL

16 .3 - braked Too much Low

17. Behavior to the ground in an airport area.

17 .1 - behavior ┴. the Ground After A Correct Normal Landing.

17 .2 - behavior ┴. the Ground In An Airport Area.

Second departs: Procedures of emergency.

18. Procedures in situations of emergency.

18.1 - damage ┴. the aircraft.

18.2 - Accidental opening Of the Parachute ┴. Bordo Of the aircraft.

18.3 - Accidental opening Of the Parachute During The Phase Of Exit.

18.4 - procedures In Case Of I don't Detach any Rope Of Tie it is Consequent Deduction Of the Parachutist Suspended ┴. the airplane.

18.5 - procedures In Case Of Malfunctions Light ┴. the Parachute, In Phase Of Opening.

18.6 - procedures Of use Of the Auxiliary Parachute.

18.7 - malfunctions Serious ┴. the Parachute, In Phase Of Opening.

18.8 - malfunctions ┴. Bassa Speed' Of Fall That you/they Ask for The Procedure "he/she Knows" (I Unhook some principal veiling and Opening of the assistant).

18.9 - malfunctions To High Speed' Of Fall That you/they Ask for The Procedure "┴. the" (immediate Opening of the auxiliary parachute).

18.10 - collisions.

18.11 - landings On you Hinder Dangerous.

18.12 TRASCINAMENTOs ┴ the Ground.

19. Behavior in descent with the auxiliary parachute.

20. General norms of prevention of the accidents.

21. Conditions of health dissuaded for the execution of the throwing.

22. General norms of behavior in case of damage of the aircraft in the phase of take-off or immediately following.

23. Notions of normative connected aeronautics the paracadutismo.

It follows:

PROGRAM OF TRAINING FOR THE PARACADUTISMO

___________________________________________________________________________________________

TRAINING PROPEDEUTICO ┴ THE THROWING ACCORDING TO THE METHOD " FV"

It departs Before: Normal procedures.

1.Presentation of the throwing equipment: description, carnatteristiche and performances, sequence of opening.

L' throwing equipment to be used is built from:
- a system sacche/imbragatura;
- a principal parachute;
- an auxiliary parachute.

1 .1 - system SACCHE/IMBRAGATURA
The system sacche/imbragatura is of the type "CAMPUS 2."
The "CAMPUS 2" it is composed from an imbragatura to which a separated knapsack has fixed in two compartments, one above the other.
In the inferior compartment the principal parachute is lodged, in that superior, the parachute ausiliario.Il auxiliary parachute is integrally united to the imbragatura, while the principal is to it united through a system of hookup "┴. 3 rings." This system of hookup allows, if necessario,il separation of the principal parachute from the imbragatura. The rings are visible in the tall part of the two anterior ribbons of the imbragatura. On the right anterior ribbon of the imbragatura a pad of cloth is lodged that trazionato, duly, produces the aforesaid separation.
On the left anterior ribbon the metallic handle of opening of the auxiliary parachute is lodged.
Once worn, 1'imbragatura stick to the body with the closing and regoazione, through simple traction, of the two ribbons cosciali and of the ribbon pettorale.

1 .2 - system Of Connection Among L' Opening Of the assistant And The Principal.
The visible device in the tall anterior part of the imbragatura, is a system of connection of the principal parachute with the opening of the auxiliary parachute. And' a system that the opening of the assistant makes automatic after the possible necessary I unhook some pincipale. The system can manually be disarmed.

1.3 - Additional device Of Automatic Opening.
And' a device that automatically operates the opening of the assistant to the safety quota to which tarato.E comes' installed under the metallic handle of opening of the assistant. It has an interrupter for the activation and the disattivazione

1.4 - the Parachutes.
The system of the principal parachute is constituted by a pilots extractor (small parachute with a powerful person rubber band) co11egato through a ribbon to the veiling.
Among the pilots extractor and the veiling, along the connective ribbon, there is a scabbard inside which it comes well lodged the veiling after having correctly been refolded.

To the veiling all the ropes have fixed that constitute the bundle funicular. The bundle funicular is separated in four groups of ropes that are united to as many resistant ribbons, said "suspenderses" (anterior right and left, back right and left) which turns to them they are united to the imbragatura through the system "┴. 3 rings". The system of the auxiliary parachute is similar to that of the principal parachute. With exclusion of the fact that the suspenderses of the assistant are solidali with the imbragatura.

1 .5 - the Commands.
On the anterior fašade of each of the two back suspenderses of each of the two parachutes, they are lodged some manigliettes in cloth ("commands"). These are connected with twines, to the respective back parts of her velatura.Trazionando the manglietta of right the tacking effects to the right him, trazionando the maniglietta of left the tacking effects to the left him. Trazionando both the commands it him the speed of advancement. The diminution of speed of advancement and the acceleration of the tacking depend on the ampleness of extension of the commands.
These commands come, during the refolding, duly jammed so that to have him, in the moment of the opening, the advancement of the veiling to a speed equal to halves the proper maximum speed. This, both to avoid too much a violent shock of opening both to allow a more orderly unfolding of the veiling. The forgetfulness of the block of the commands produces dangerously defective openings.

1.6 - the Veilings.
The veilings are both, principal and assistant, to profile to haul of nylon ripstop to low porosity.
Their inside structure is to blank cells (9 principal; 7 cells ltausiliaria).
Rettangoare has cried and they measures of superficie,circa 26 mqs. the principal one and 22 mqs. the assistant.
They are both direzionabili with the special commands.
L' action of these commands, connected with the back part (edge of exit) of the veiling, they produce to this such deformations to allow moves of direction and variations of speed of avanzamenio.
Indicatively their performances are the followings:
Proper speed CVp) of advancement = 8/9 meters to the second;
Speed of Descent (Vd) max = 4 m/ses.

1.7 - the SLIDER.
The slider is a nylon handkerchief with 4 holes to the edges (distant among them around as the distance between the suspenderses of right and quele of left), through each of which it passes one of the four group of ropes of the fascio.Ha the function of deceleration of the opening of the veiling. Without it, the opening would be too much violent to be able to bear her/it without damages.

1.8 - rope Of Tie.
The rope of tie (FV) it is a ribbon in nylon wide 2,5 centimeters and long around 3 meters. A head is to form of buttonhole and the other head a moschettone you/he/she has fixed. The buttonhole of the F.V. you/he/she is connected at the base of the pilots extractor, through a twine to set tear (350 Ns). The moschettone is fixed to a special hookup (static cable) on the airplane.

1 .9 - sequence Of Automatic " Opening FV" Of the Parachute.
Hardly the parachutist leaves the airplane to perform the throwing, the rope of tie going to tension, you/he/she opens the knapsack, you/he/she extracts the pilots, he sends in tension the scabbard where the veiling is lodged, the whole bundle funicular develops him and, to this point the set twine breaks him. The wind, produced by the fall, it puts in pressure the cells and it begins the unfolding of the veiling, delayed by the slider that, from the tall position, next to the veiling, it goes down behind the suspenderses.

2. Preparation and indossaggio of the equipment.

2.1 - preparation DELL' Equipment.
Before visibly wearing the knapsack of the parachutes in order, the checks are obligatory (from who delivers him/it and of whom has to use him/it) of the efficenza of:
systems of closing and opening of the knapsack of the principal and the assistant;
system of I unhook some principal veiling;
safety system that connects the principal to the opening of the ausi1iario;
it systematizes automatic of opening of the assistant.
For a comfortable indossaggio, to loosen the closings of the ribbons cosciali and to open the closing of the ribbon pettorale. To insert in the ribbon pettorale the optic altimeter. To systematize the rigid helmet ready for the indossaggio.

2.2 - INDOSSAGGIO DELL' Equipment.
To take the knapsack with the parachutes from the tall part of the principal ribbon of the imbragatura (never from the suspenderses or from the handles), to insert the legs in the single coscialis, to insert him/it on the shoulders, to close the ribbon pettorale, to tighten the closings of the ribbons cosciali, to tighten the ribbon pettorale, systematizing the altimeter so that is visible and you don't jeopardize the possible driving of the handles of emergenza.Se 1'imbragatura it was too much long or too much short for the height of whom the ilndossa, togl-lersi the equipment, to regulate him/it and to wear again it.
To activate the additional Device of automatic opening.

2.3 - clothing.
For i1 clothing there are no particular indications.
Special overall or rest overall and gymnastic shoes are recommended.
And' made obligation that the attire covers the limbs and that the footwears are closed without susceptible parts of impigliamento.

3. Embarkation, setup and behavior on board of the aircraft.

3.1 - PRE-embarkation.
The operation that immediately precedes the phase of embarkation is the control pre-embarkation dell, equipment. This edited by control the instructor, or of who function replaces him/it (Manager of Throwing, "DL"), it is obligatory and it has to be claimed from who has to suffer him/it.

3.2 - IMBARCD And SISTEMAZIDNE ┴. Bordo.
The run of approach to the aircraft never has to pass in front of this. If it needs to revolve him/it to pass behind the tail.
Don't draw near to the airplane if not in presence of the DL.
The DL owes the ndicare the place assigned to every parachutist and has to hook the ropes of tie to the special cable statico.Pretendere the control of the operation of hookup of his/her own rope of tie. To climb and to take a seat according to the indications of the DL.

3.3 - behavior ┴. Bordo
During the flight for the attainment of the point of throwing, to stay firm to the really place and to follow to the evventualis dispositions dispositions of the DL.

4. Formality of exit da1l' aircraft for the throwing.

The good position to the exit dall' airplane favors (if even it determines not) the position that the body will assume during the first seconds of free fall. This means that the preparation to the exit is very important.
The positioning to the door diversifies him according to the conformation and position of the door in the various aircrafts. It will be therefore the instructor's care to point out of time in time, for every type of aircraft, the precise positioning before abandoning the airplane, with the purpose to be able to easily assume and in the briefest possible time the correct position of free fall.
Two fundamental rules and always valid to make sure himself/herself/themselves a correct I detach from the airplane it is that to get ready himself/herself/themselves to the uscia preparing the body on the same axle of flight of the airplane and in such a position that allows to always see the DL. To maintain, during the whole phase of exit, the look to.) DL and a necessary condition to make easy and corrected the position to I detach him/it.
Around one minute before reaching the point of throwing, when the DL from the disposition to the pilot to reduce the speed of the airplane (usually the used word is: "motor", says to tall voice) it is owed us to correctly systematize to the door and to effect the exit according to the received indications dall' Instructor.

5. Strengths that act on the body to the exit and in free fall, concept of equilibrium and stability of the body in fall.

5.1 - ALL' Gone out.
In exit, the feeling that tries him, is not to fall in the void but to be supported on a pillow of air. That is thanks to the relative wind. That wind that spontaneously produces him with the motion of his/her own body. Nell 'instant of the I detach dall' airplane, the speed of advancement in comparison to the ground is equal to the speed of the airplane. In the following instants he will reduce as thin to annihilate himself/herself/themselves.

5.2 - in Fall.
In the following moment to the exit the strength of terrestrial gravity acts as on all the heaviest bodies of the air: the bodies fall I pour earth. They fall with acceleration (defined. in the case of the terrestrial gravity, with the letter "g") constant (=9.8m/sec.q) for all the bodies, up to 12/15 seconds after the exit; moment in which the speed, thanks to the resistance of the air, it stabilizes him on a value (variable according to the position and the surface of the body, according to the density of the air, according to the mass of the parachutist, etc.) from 180 to 250 km/hs. Before the 12/15 seconds expire the speed of advancement that the body had to the exit practically reduced to zero.

5.3 - Stable equilibrium Of the Body In Free Fall.
All the strengths of a system can be represented by an only equivalent strength. The point of application of the resultant one (defined weight of the body) of the strengths d' action is the C.G. (Center of Gravity), while the corresponding resultant puntodella of the strengths of reaction is the C.P. (Center of Pressure).
While the position of the C.G. on the plan, various in operation of the form and mass of the body, the position of the C.P. various mainly in operation of the surface of the body to the relative wind. speed of movement, etc.
To have him equilibrium, the two resultant they have to be equivalent and of sense-contrary.
If we consider that in every human body in fallen the C.G. you/he/she is approximately positioned to the height of the stomach, to have him "stable Equilibrium" (and that is a stable fall) it needs that the C.P. both above the C.G.
To get best ci˛,la-position is the Basic Position:
Body: in attitude to arc.
Head: flexed back
Braccia: in out-tall.
Hands: in line.
Thighs: wide apart.
Legs: semiflesse.
Feet: wide.
There is to add that the look has to continue to be turned to the thin DL to the opening of the parachute. And this' for three important reasons:
he/she forces the head in a correct position;
the visual contact with always the DL is had for possible communications;
he easily checks, without other moves of the head, the phase of opening of the parachute.
A correct stable fall favors the correct opening of the knapsack and correct and orderly unfolding of the parachute, further to warn, in smaller way, the shock that is suffered to the moment of the opening of the veiling. And' this the position that the body has to assume later immediately I detach him/it dall' aircraft, up to the opening of the parachute.
And' this position the first important objective that has to reach a student that holds to his/her own safety and desires to correctly begin a good progression.

6. Acquisition of stability and behavior actually to the opening.

6.1 - acquisition Of Established.'
To acquire the stability in exit is not some enough to know the theory. With the purpose to mechanize at the most the correct movements, that don't jeopardize the stability of the position, numerous tests are necessary and earth simulations in presence of the instructor that corrects possible errors:
- tests in airplane, of the positioning to the door;
- tests in airplane, of the exit and immediate acquisition of the position;
- tests of the positions of fallen de:
the body, the head, the look, the braccias, the hands, the thighs, the legs, the feet.

6.2 - behavior Until ALL' Opening.
We have seen in precedence the behavior to hold in airplane in slope, we now analyze the behavior to hold from the moment of the attainment of the quota of throwing up to the opening. When the DL will have' established to have reached the precise moment to begin the operations for the throwing:

it will orally warn the pilot that he is about to effect the throwing;
it will warn the student to settle himself/herself/themselves to the door and this will involve as in the earth tests;
controýlerÓ the positioning and it will warn the student that can launch him.
The student, always looking at the DL, it will effect his/her exit as in the earth tests, assuming her/it
correct position, maintaining the visual contact with the DL and articulating, to tall voice, three seconds.

The scanning of the time in moments of tension happens too much in fast way. And' well therefore to get used to earth to articulate: "ONE. TWO. Three", in the precise time of three seconds, with the aid of a chronometer. To repeat numerous times the tests of a regular scanning, to tall voice.
Three seconds it is the presumable time to have him the opening of the parachute. In case of drawbacks, departed this time, it needs to begin the procedures of emergency brought more before (from $18.4 to $18.9).
After the correct opening of the parachute, to grasp the commands and trazionarli in low contemporarily, to free them from the brakes.

7. Technique for l 'opening of the principal parachute.

To acquire the technique for the opening, 1'esercizio propedeuticos it is her/it "False Handle" (F.M.), so-called because you/he/she is performed with a handle that is not connected to the opening of the knapsack and therefore without any function. This exercise, the first one in stable free fall, must be performs when he/she anchors the opening it automatically happens from the traction of the rope of tie. L' exercise simply consists in the gesture of traction of the handle that owes venir performed in the following way:

After the exit, to the scanning of "Two", to grasp the handle with 1a hand dest ra and contemporarily left aloft above the forehead, to extract the familia bringing the braccias in the position of stable fall. The exercise has to begin and to end himself/herself/themselves second.
And' absolutely necessary to try numerous times, to earth, with the installed handle both the technique and the correct lilt of the exercise.

8. Verica post-opening of the state of the parachute.

After the opening of the parachute inanzitutto is necessary to verify the state of the veiling, of the slider, of the ropes and of the suspenderses intervening if unsuitable unsuitable necessario.Eventuali and relative procedures of emergency are described subsequently (from $18.5 to $18.9).
Verified the good state of the parachute, to grasp the commands and trazionarli in low freeing so the brakes.

9. Manoeuvres to prevent collisions with other parachutists.

After the verification of the state of the sail. it is necessary to be ready to immediately avoid a possible collision with other near parachutists. To do this.' if the brakes of the commands are not freed, still it is necessary to immediately take in hand the suspender back right and trazionarla to fund. If the brakes of the commands have been freed, already trazionare immediately, to fund. the command destro.Tutto this to effect to the right a sudden tacking.
Even if he is not in rout of collision, to watch out, not only in phase of opening but during the whole descent to open parachute, not to enter the wake left by other underlying parachutists. The flight would become, for the whole time when he is in wake, uncontrollable. Always respect the fundamental one regulate that from the right of precedence to the parachutists; without any exception!

10. Evaluation of: position I respect a1l'area of landing; direction and intensity of the wind.

With the commands in hand to individualize the position of the known things: footstep of the airport, shed, roads, wind sleeve. To esteem the proper vertical looking among the feet so also appraising the direction of the move.
Your point should be "awry" of the zone of landing, and that is from the part from where it eventually originates the wind that blows in direction of the zone of landing.
The observation of the wind sleeve can help to verify if the direction and the intensity of the wind are the same of those that existed to earth. before the slope. and according to which the instructor has given indications for the manoeuvres to perform.

11. Formality of use of the parachute for landing in pre-arranged area, of the wind and of the obstacles to the ground.

11.1 - manoeuvres to Be effected Before Landing In Pre-arranged Area.
And' important to first of all remember to never abandon the taking on the commands, fi no end all of the manoeuvre of landing!
To go himself/herself/themselves toward the zone of landing without overcoming her/it. After the approximate evaluation of the expectation point of landing, in consideration of the direction and speed of the wind and the present obstacles to the ground, to overcome along the run to perform the following exercises,:
to) to effect a least traction of the two commands in equal measure. and from this position to lower completely the command of right, after having so effected a turn of 360 degrees, to bring the right command to the height of the other and to repeat the exercise with the left one;
b) to release the commands, trazionarli both up to the possible lowest point, to maintain them so until the annulment of the speed it is not warned, of advancement (stalemate), and then to softly release them up to the height of the shoulders.
Trying the whole position intermediary, to try to establish qual'Ŕ the exact point whether to bring the commands affinche,la speed of advancement both, the maximum metÓ,della.
Anybody test must have effected to inferior quota to the 400 meters. And' profit here to remember that the speed and the direction of the moves in comparison to the ground are the result of the components of the Vp and the Speed of the wind (Vw).
To check the vertical point on the ground and the quota on the altimeter after every exercise.

11.2 - encircled Of landing.
To 300 meters quota you have to reach the vertical one of a point on the ground (Stings Window), predetermined to earth together with the instructor, from which to begin the circuit of landing. The procedures and the parameters related to the standard circuit of landing, dettagliatamentes will come illustrated by the instructor.
The contact with the ground has to Always happen against wind even if its intensity is least. And' evident in fact that landing for wind him lands to the speed' sum of the Vp with the speed of the wind (Vw). Landing instead against wind him will land to a speed difference of the two speeds' and that is very more slowly. To make an example of a very frequent condition, imagines that there am a wind of 3 m/ses. The move in comparison to the terrestrial sara':
for wind, CVp + Vw = 8 m/ses + 3 m/ses = 11 m/ses).
against wind, CVp - Vw = 8 m/ses - 3 m/ses = 5 m/ses).
And' evident that a landing for wind is extremely dangerous.

11.3 - manoeuvres to Be effected In Presence Of Obstacles ┴. the Ground.
The theoretical behavior of the parachute is valid until there are no obstacles in the anticipated zone for the landing.
If I am there or they introduces obstacles, it needs to observe a simple rule:
- if the obstacle on the trajectory of approach in the zone is far, it is tried to remain in the zone where he is, reducing the speed of advancement.
- if the I hinder it is nearby, it is tried to overcome him/it.
To avoid an obstacle, also a tacking of degrees (10/30) you/he/she could be enough without jeopardizing the safety.

12. Respect of the point of landing.

To esteem well the point of landing, he checks a1ternativamente the vertical point and the path, imaginarily drawn on the ground, that he is crossing for the landing. This way making the error of evaluation of the point of landing is least. We remember then that: more it draws near us to the more ground it is easy to make the necessary evaluations. With the help of the Instructor and the experience that it is acquired with the throwing the respect it will be precise more and more.

13. Behavior of the wind in proximity of obstacles (turbulences).

The turbulence is also known under the name of "whirlwinds or rotors"; they exist of it of all the greatness, from less than a meter to many kilometers of diameter.
The turbulences are due to:
to) the impact of the wind against solid objects as you plant with trees, hills, built, etc.. Once overcome the I hinder, the flow of the wind breaks him and the air directs him in all the directions creating note turbulences.
b) static instability of the air, due to thermal effect.
c) difference of speed among provocative two masses of air to theirs counted, a series of turbinii.
Even if all these three conditions he can more dangerously introduce always, decidedly the more frequently dangerous it is her/it before.
The intensity of the turbulence in this case depends from:
the speed' of the wind
the density of the air
the form and the greatness of the obstacles to the flow of the air.
If, the wind for instance, exceeds the the speed of 5/7 meters to the second, it needs to move himself/herself/themselves of 400 meters from great buildings not to find turbulent zones anymore.
In the zones turbulent, the veiling is in nanny of the sudden moves of direction and intensity of the wind. ln these cases the best stability of the veiling is had trazionando the commands to 30/50% of brake.

14. Manoeuvres to prevent landings on you hinder.

If, in the final phase of the landing, in perfect position against wind, it had to present himself/herself/themselves an obstacle before you/he/she can be avoided him/it acting on the command from the free part from obstacles, effecting so a light tacking of some degree. 10/30 degrees are often enough. A disassamento, from the against wind, of these few degrees, don't jeopardize the safety of the landing. You will land with a light scarrocciamento from the part from which veers. And' however better to land in these conditions that impattare against the I hinder.
And' important however to remember that in the moment of execution of next tackings to the 90 degrees and over, the speed of fall starts to increase enormously and therefore, if you effect next to the ground, the impact with the ground under These conditions is violent and puts in serious danger the safety of whom has effected such an incorrect manoeuvre.

15. Manoeuvre of the veiling in preparation of the landing.

To the quota of 50 meters it will be owed us to find with the well grasped commands and trazionati to 20/30%, in right flight, in perfect position opposite wind with the look on the ground to the presumable point of landing. Don't perform any manoeuvre if not tightly necessary for safety matters. To focus himself/herself/themselves to get ready himself/herself/themselves to the contact with the ground.

16. Formality and behavior in the phase of landing.

16.1 - braked Correct In Landing.
To the quota of 20 meters, grasped well always the commands, to release them completely and to start, immediately later, one definite progressive sunk of the commands. This manoeuvre is that, that allows a sweet landing and it asks only for a brief run of two or three footsteps.
Main point is not to bring the sail in stalemate (least speed of advancement but high speed of descent!).
In case of landing in a non known zone, so that to avoid errors of evaluation of quota, and therefore of manoeuvres of braked, to maintain from the height of 10 meters, the commands trazionati to 50% landing so with a run some heavy, but however sure.

16.2 - braked Too much Tall.
If brakes her/it starts too aloft, to slow down the movement of the braked one. If he doesn't succeed in appraising the error and at the end of brakes her/it it is found there tall, to remain with the firm commands in that position and to get ready himself/herself/themselves to a landing a harder po.

16.3 - braked Too much Low.
Realizing himself/herself/itself to have begun brakes too much her in low, it needs to close the legs, to unite the feet and to get ready himself/herself/themselves to a landing a harder po. If the error is not warned, in the moment to instinctively touch earth him effetuerÓ a fast run, for some meter, up to the disposal of the whole horizontal push.
In the first three throwing, during the whole phase of landing there will be 1'assistenza of the instructor or of parachutist with license from him designate. These it will give, by radio or with megaphone or with pre-arranged gestures, indications on the precise moment of beginning of the braked one, on the speed of execution of the braked one and on possible corrections of incorrect manoeuvres.

17. Behavior to the ground airport in'area.

17.1 behavior ┴. the Ground After A Normal CORETTO Atterraggio Immediately after the landing. raccoglere the skein veiling with the wide braccias. starting from the bundle funicular, then the veiling, then the pilots. To reach the zone of refolding. To place the parachute starting from the pilots and subsequently, withdrawing, the veiling and the bundle funicular. To unhook the hook pettorale, to get unthreaded himself/herself/themselves him the-mbragatura and after having riagganciato the pettorale. to put back her/it to contact of the ground. To present himself/herself/themselves to the Instructor with the book of the throwing for the recording of the data and the technical evaluations of the Instructor.

17.2 behavior ┴. the Ground In An Airport Area.
In the case the landings happen in an airport, besides rilspettare the airport rules it is necessary to remain always in the spaces destined to the school. to absolutely avoid to draw near to other aircrafts, to never cross the footstep or the link not to stop on the square of flight.
If accidentally the landing had happened in footstep, to immediately free her/it.
To reach the zone of refolding, if the landing has happened from the other side of the footstep, not to cross her/it but to trick passing her/it over the nearest heading.

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